Hawks & Eagles Of Vietnam – Accipitridae
Vietnam is home to a diverse array, with a total of 43 species Hawks & Eagles of Vietnam recorded in the country. These birds of prey can be found in a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, wetlands, and even urban areas. Many of these species are apex predators, playing a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance of their respective ecosystems.
Some of the most commonly sighted hawks and eagles in Vietnam include the Crested Serpent Eagle, the Black Baza, the Grey-faced Buzzard, the Shikra, and the Oriental Honey-buzzard. These species are often seen soaring high above the treetops in search of prey or perching on prominent branches to keep watch over their territory.
Other notable species of hawks and eagles found in Vietnam include the White-bellied Sea Eagle, the Greater Spotted Eagle, the Lesser Fish Eagle, and the Booted Eagle. These birds of prey are typically found near bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, and coastal areas, where they can hunt for fish and other aquatic prey.
Despite their importance in maintaining the balance of their ecosystems, many species of hawks and eagles in Vietnam face threats from habitat loss, hunting, and other human activities. Conservation efforts are underway to protect these birds and their habitats and to raise awareness of the importance of preserving the country’s rich biodiversity
Here are some of the most notable ones:
- Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) – A medium-sized bird of prey found in forests across Vietnam. It has a distinctive crest of feathers on its head and a sharp, hooked beak.
- Mountain Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis) – A large bird of prey that inhabits the mountainous regions of northern Vietnam. It is known for its powerful talons and sharp eyesight.
- Black Baza (Aviceda leuphotes) – A small bird of prey that inhabits the forests of Vietnam. It has a distinctive black and white plumage and feeds on small birds and insects.
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus cirrhatus) – A medium-sized bird of prey found in forests and open country across Vietnam. It is known for its striking plumage that changes color with age.
- Jerdon’s Baza (Aviceda jerdoni) – A small bird of prey that is primarily found in the northern part of Vietnam. It has a distinctive black and white plumage and feeds mainly on insects and small birds.
- Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) – A small bird of prey that is common throughout Vietnam. It is known for its sharp talons and ability to fly at high speeds.
- Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) – A medium-sized bird of prey that is known for its distinctive “booted” feathers on its lower legs. It feeds on a variety of prey, including small mammals and birds.
- Oriental Honey-Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhynchus) – A large bird of prey that is known for its distinctive long and narrow wings. It feeds primarily on bees and their larvae.
- Grey-faced Buzzard (Butastur indicus) – A medium-sized bird of prey that is known for its distinctive grey face and striped tail. It feeds mainly on small mammals and birds.
- Eastern Marsh Harrier (Circus spilonotus) – A bird of prey that is found in wetland areas throughout Vietnam. It is known for its distinctive white rump and ability to fly close to the ground.
- Pied Harrier (Circus melanoleucos) – A bird of prey that is found in open country throughout Vietnam. It is known for its distinctive black and white plumage and ability to fly at high speeds.
- Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) – A large bird of prey that is found in forests throughout Vietnam. It is known for its sharp talons and ability to catch prey while in flight.
- Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) – A medium-sized bird of prey that is found in forests throughout Vietnam. It is known for its distinctive crest of feathers on its head.
- Black Kite (Milvus migrans) – A large bird of prey that is found in open country throughout Vietnam. It is known for its distinctive forked tail and ability to soar at high altitudes.
- Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) – A medium-sized bird of prey that is found in coastal areas throughout Vietnam. It feeds mainly on fish and other marine life.
Habitat & Distribution
Hawks and eagles in Vietnam can be found in a variety of habitats, from lowland forests to montane forests, grasslands, wetlands, and even urban areas. Some species, such as the White-bellied Sea Eagle, are associated with coastal areas and are commonly found near the shoreline or offshore islands. Others, such as the Grey-faced Buzzard and the Chinese Sparrowhawk, are migratory raptors that pass through Vietnam during their seasonal movements.
In forested areas, hawks and eagles tend to inhabit the canopy and hunt for prey among the treetops. Some of the species that are commonly found in these habitats include the Crested Serpent Eagle, Mountain Hawk Eagle, and Rufous-bellied Eagle. In grasslands and agricultural areas, hawks and eagles may hunt for small mammals and birds in open areas, with species such as the Eastern Marsh Harrier and Pied Harrier being commonly found in these habitats.
Urban areas, particularly large cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, can also support populations of hawks and eagles. These birds are often attracted to the abundance of pigeons and other small birds found in urban environments and can be seen perching on tall buildings or soaring overhead.
Hawks and eagles are widely distributed throughout Vietnam, inhabiting a variety of habitats from lowland forests to high mountain ranges. Some species are more restricted in their distribution, such as the White-tailed Eagle which is found mainly in northern Vietnam, and the Eastern Marsh Harrier which is mainly found in coastal wetlands in the south.
Other species have a wider distribution and can be found throughout much of the country. For example, the Crested Goshawk is found throughout the country, as is the Black-shouldered Kite, which is also found in many other parts of the world.
Many species of hawks and eagles in Vietnam are migratory, with some breeding in the northern hemisphere and wintering in the south, while others breed in the southern hemisphere and migrate north for the winter. The exact distribution of each species can vary depending on the time of year and the stage of the breeding cycle
Hawks and eagles in Vietnam are carnivorous birds that hunt and feed on a wide range of prey. Their diet can vary depending on the species and their habitat, but in general, these birds are skilled hunters and feed on small mammals, birds, reptiles, and even fish.
Some of the smaller species, such as the Black-winged Kite and Crested Goshawk, primarily feed on small birds, rodents, and insects. The larger eagles, such as the White-bellied Sea Eagle and Greater Spotted Eagle, feed on larger prey, including fish, mammals, and even other birds.
The Mountain Hawk-Eagle is known for its preference for feeding on snakes, which it hunts and kills using its sharp talons. The Rufous-bellied Eagle is another species that is known for its ability to hunt and kill snakes.
In addition to hunting live prey, some hawk and eagle species in Vietnam are known to scavenge for food. The Crested Serpent-Eagle, for example, is known to scavenge on carcasses of dead animals, as well as hunt live prey.
Hawks and eagles in Vietnam have diverse breeding behaviors, varying from solitary to communal nesting. The nests are usually built on tall trees, rocky cliffs, or even on the ground in open areas. Hawks and eagles are monogamous and form pairs during the breeding season. The breeding season can vary between species but usually occurs from November to April. During the courtship display, the male will perform aerial displays to attract a mate.
The female hawk or eagle will lay 1 to 4 eggs, depending on the species. The eggs are incubated by both parents for a period of 30 to 50 days. The chicks hatch asynchronously, and the older chick is usually larger and more dominant than the younger ones. The parents will provide food for the chicks until they fledge, which can take anywhere from 50 to 100 days depending on the species. After the young fledge, the parents continue to provide food for them until they become independent.
There are several species of hawks and eagles in Vietnam that are in danger of extinction, mainly due to habitat loss, illegal hunting, and pesticides. Here are five such species:
- White-rumped Vulture: This critically endangered species has experienced a rapid population decline in recent decades due to the use of the veterinary drug Diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures. Additionally, habitat loss and hunting for traditional medicine and food have also contributed to their decline.
- Red-headed Vulture: This vulture species is also critically endangered in Vietnam, with population declines primarily attributed to poisoning from pesticides and habitat loss. The destruction of their habitat has led to a reduction in food availability, resulting in a decrease in population.
- Pallas’s Fish-Eagle: This species is listed as endangered due to a combination of habitat loss and poaching. The eagles are often shot or trapped for traditional medicine and as trophies.
- Chinese Goshawk: This species is considered vulnerable in Vietnam due to habitat loss and degradation from forest logging and conversion to agriculture. Hunting and trapping for the falconry trade have also contributed to their decline.
- Grey-headed Fish Eagle: This species is also considered vulnerable in Vietnam due to habitat loss, specifically the degradation of mangrove forests and overfishing. Additionally, illegal hunting for traditional medicine and meat has also contributed to their decline.
Efforts are being made to conserve and protect these and other endangered species of hawks and eagles in Vietnam, including the establishment of protected areas and conservation projects to monitor and preserve their populations
List 43 Hawks & Eagles of Vietnam
|Greater Spotted Eagle